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Publications - Community Development Resources


Mind the Gap: How Do Credit Market Experiences and Borrowing Patterns Differ for Minority-Owned Firms?

Given the relationship between a small business’s access to financing and its outcomes, and given the growing share of minorities in the U.S., it’s important that all creditworthy firms and entrepreneurs are able to secure adequate financial resources, irrespective of race or ethnicity. In this paper, which employs data from the Federal Reserve System’s 2016 Small Business Credit Survey, the authors explore under what conditions credit market experiences differ for various racial and ethnic ownership groups of small employer firms. They find evidence for disparities in credit approval by the race or ethnicity of the business owner, such as many minority-owned firms being less likely to receive approval for financing or being discouraged from applying in the first place.

How do Firms Respond to Hiring Difficulties?

Using data from the Federal Reserve Banks' 2017 Small Business Credit Survey (SBCS), this paper investigates the various ways in which different types of firms with less than 500 employees experience and address hiring difficulties, including when they decide to increase compensation.

The results provide insight for policymakers trying to understand the linkage between compensation, labor market tightness, and productivity. Further, the variation in hiring difficulties across firm industry, education requirement, and geographic location informs economic and workforce development practitioners and policymakers working to develop targeted interventions.

5th District Footprint: Small Business Lending in the Fifth District

This issue of 5th District Footprint examines the percentage change in the number and total dollar value of small business loans originated in Fifth District counties in the years following the Great Recession — from 2010 to 2015 — by the location of the recipient small businesses. 

2016 Small Business Credit Survey: Report on Employer Firms

The 12 Federal Reserve Banks issued the 2016 Small Business Credit Survey: Report on Employer Firms, which examines the results of an annual survey of business conditions and the credit environment faced by small business owners who have full- or part-time employees. The survey gathered experiences from firms across all 50 states and the District of Columbia through the joint efforts of the Federal Reserve Banks of New York, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Richmond, San Francisco and St. Louis.

Community Development Financial Institutions in the Southeast: Surveying the Social Investment Landscape

Volume 4, Issue 1 2016 of Community Scope uses the results of the 2015 survey to present timely key findings on CDFI activity in the Southeast, including capitalization, demand, capacity, non-lending programs and services, and impact investing.

Creating a smarter, faster, better approach to serving low-income communities

A conversation with Dave Glaser, president of Montana & Idaho Community Development Corporation, on how his organization is adopting more effective ways to pursue business and housing development. From Community Dividend, a publication of the Minneapolis Fed.

State of Small Business

Why, if so much has improved in recent years relating to small business, are there fewer startup firms, comparatively? A Cleveland Fed writer explores what’s improved, what hasn’t, and what’s possibly to come for Main Street firms.

Click, Submit: New Insights on Online Lender Applicants from the Small Business Credit Survey

How do small businesses that apply to online alternative lenders compare to those that apply to traditional financial institutions only? And in what ways do their experiences with lenders differ? This analysis from Cleveland Fed and Board of Governor analysts draws from data in the Federal Reserve’s 2015 Small Business Credit Survey to examine these questions.

Fostering entrepreneur development in North Minneapolis

A conversation with Marcus Owens, president of NEON, who is working to expand opportunities for low- and moderate-income entrepreneurs and help them build wealth. From Community Dividend, a publication of the Minneapolis Fed.

Impact Investing in the U.S. and the Fifth District

The net assets of investment funds pursuing an impact investment strategy have grown from $12 billion in 1995 to $4.3 trillion in 2014 – that’s growth by a multitude of nearly 360 in less than 20 years. This 5th District Spotlight presents context to impact investing’s meteoric rise through facts, figures and analysis.

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