Holistic community development - Publications
This issue of Community Scope presents key findings from the 2017 Richmond Fed’s Survey of CDFIs in the Southeast.
This issue of Community Practice Papers details one path to further advance the Pay-for-Success (PFS) field in the United States — the use of universities, and specifically the University of Virginia’s Pay for Success Lab.
This issue of the Community Pulse presents the findings from our 2017 survey. Amount of/and or access to affordable housing, skill level of local labor force and general poverty were the top three current issues in the fifth district.
Community Practice Papers: Community Development Corporations- Diverse Practices Across North and South Carolina
In this issue of Community Practice Papers, we take a look at examples of sustained and emerging business models from rural and urban Community Development Corporations across North and South Carolina.
This issue of 5th District Footprint examines opioid prescription rates and drug overdose mortality rates in the Fifth District.
This issue of 5th District Footprint examines how counties and independent cities in the Fifth District use the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) to produce affordable housing units.
Data show a persistent widening of income inequality in this country. How can communities establish economic growth that is both strong and inclusive? This article looks at a South Florida effort to improve prosperity for all and create a more resilient local economy.
How can a small city that suffers a natural disaster recover economically? This article explores the economic success and challenges of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in the wake of a disastrous 2008 flood.
As a proponent and facilitator of more equitable and inclusive communities, the Atlanta Fed’s community and economic development (CED) program works to activate financial, human, and social capital to foster economic growth and opportunity in low- and moderate-income communities in the Southeast. This article recaps a November 3, 2016, community tour that Atlanta Fed employees from CED and supervision and regulation organized for Fed Governor Lael Brainard. It was one of several trips she has made around the country to speak with community members and organizations about local challenges and community development efforts.
Infographics and data visualization tools are increasingly available from many sources, such as an interactive map accompanying a news article or a graph of expenditures analyzing an online credit card statement. These types of tools enrich our understanding of concepts and trends. This article examines two tools that aim to capture the real variation between housing and transportation costs between and within regions, and therefore the relative affordability for households of varying income levels.
Community development and health professionals often work with the same residents in separate silos, but that is beginning to change. This article previews a paper on emerging health-community development partnerships in the Southeast.
This article explores the Small City Economic Dynamism Index, an interactive data tool that examines the economic trajectory of small and midsized cities. As the article explains, the tool's interactive charts enable peer comparisons and visualization of trends across time. The information can be used to support development of local policy, strategies, or funding proposals related to community and economic development in small and midsized cities.
Can Community Development Improve Health? Emerging Opportunities for Collaboration between the Health and Community Development Sectors
The two sectors of community development and health have long worked in the same neighborhoods, but they have not always worked together. This is starting to change, due in part to a growing recognition among health experts of the social determinants of health—the social, economic, and environmental factors that drive health outcomes. This discussion paper reviews early lessons on how to build a successful health and community development partnership, including an examination of the incentives for community developers, health professionals, state and local governments, and philanthropy to participate in these collaborations.
This paper sets a framework for building transformative economies. Prepared by Paul C. Brophy, Robert Weissbourd, Andy Beideman for the Economic Growth and Mobility Project, the authors share policy levels to foster inclusive growth practices and highlight emerging approaches and innovative programs in regions across the country.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta’s interactive data tool enables policymakers and practitioners to examine local trends and compare cities across several measures of economic dynamism. The latest version of the index comprises 13 indicators across four categories (demographics, economics, human and social capital, and infrastructure) and includes data on 400 metro and micropolitan areas with populations between 50,000 and 500,000.
What does it take to measure and fund positive social change? This new book from the San Francisco Fed and Nonprofit Finance Fund sets a vision for revolutionizing the way America achieves social progress: By paying for results. The book features a collection of essays by 80 authors with wide expertise on the social, cultural, and financial implications of orienting programs and funding around outcomes.
Read about C&B's transformation this fall into our new online magazine, Invested. Our spring 2017 feature article shares valuable lessons from the Boston Fed's Working Cities Challenge, an ongoing initiative to help smaller industrial cities in New England tackle social and economic problems. Also in this issue, we learn about the perils and abuses of land installment contracts, the value of community benefits agreements, and how entrepreneurship breeds opportunity in minority communities. Other articles highlight the importance of anchor institutions to local businesses, how "gamified" financial education seems to reinforce smart savings decisions, and we see evidence that pay-for-success approaches to preventing formerly incarcerated youth from reoffending can turn young lives around. Finally, we examine recent changes in the prospects for renters in New England.
Building on the concept of creative placemaking, this paper from the San Francisco Fed presents an idea for a Community Development Financial Institution organized around art: CultureBank. Housed at Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, this nonprofit bank will specialize in unleashing asset value in art collections and focus on artists as borrowers, or Artist-Entrepreneurs.
In 2016, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco held a series of roundtable discussions across the Western states to examine drivers of the recent rise in involuntary part-time employment and the impact it has on lower-income households. This paper summarizes existing research on the topic of underemployment, discusses themes that surfaced during the locally focused meetings, and proposes ways to address the underlying causes through solutions that build on the interrelated nature of housing, jobs, transportation, and child care.
The third issue of Community Scope 2016 will offer a broad overview of the challenges faced by today’s watermen that may be precipitating their declining numbers and will discuss alternative and supplemental employment options that may be available to them.
The second issue of Community Scope 2016 examines the patterns in geographic service provision by respondent CDFIs in urban, rural, low- and moderate-income (LMI), underserved and distressed markets and areas.
Nonprofits play a variety of roles in our daily lives; from providing higher education and medical care to supporting the arts. This issue of the Fifth District Spotlight looks at the nonprofit sector in the U.S. and within the Fifth District.
Community engagement is not an easy task. This is especially true in communities with historically underrepresented and underserved populations who do not feel connected to the planning process. This 2016 article, featured in the Chicago Fed's ProfitWise News and Views, shows how some municipalities across the country are finding success through the use of participatory budgeting.
This article from a 2016 Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago’s Profitwise News and Views publication provides an in depth look at the Cara Program. Since 1991, Cara has helped men and women affected by poverty to get and keep good jobs, and more importantly rebuild hope, self-esteem, and opportunity for themselves and their families in the process. Cara produces hundreds of jobs each year, at retention rates over 20 percentage points higher than national averages, and with over 80 percent of employed participants moving onto permanent housing in which their families can thrive.
This article, featured in ProfitWise News and Views from the Chicago Fed, summarizes a 2015 conference co-hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago at the University of Wisconsin–Platteville on building healthy and sustainable rural communities. The event provided an opportunity to explore what is working to build health, prosperity, and resilience in rural communities.
The banking office landscape has shifted substantially across the United States since the financial crisis in 2008, reflecting both long-standing trends of small bank closures, as well as more recent patterns of bank branch declines. These trends are playing out in the states of the Seventh District as well, where the number of banking offices has declined in each state, and increasingly, community banks are losing their share of branches in certain markets. Low- and moderate-income (LMI) neighborhoods in a few of the District’s most populous counties are nearly devoid of community banks. This article, from the Chicago Fed's ProftWise News and Views, Issue 2, 2016, describes the changes in bank branch presence over time in the Seventh District by size of institutions and the neighborhoods they serve.
In this issue of 5th District Footprint, the Richmond Fed explores changes in the net migration rates of individuals within Fifth District counties from 2011 to 2015. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates net migration rates annually by expressing the net number of individuals that moved into a county from the U.S. (domestic migration rate) and abroad (international migration rate) as a percentage of the county’s total estimated population.
When addressing complex problems, evidence suggests common learning mechanisms are not effective. Learning communities provide an opportunity to learn and network but with a more deliberate focus on knowledge exchange, team building, and innovation. A recent study published by the San Francisco Fed shares insight on the design of learning communities and reveals best practices for building team cohesion, strengthening the capacity of the stakeholders involved in the work, and sparking new and creative thinking.
The net assets of investment funds pursuing an impact investment strategy have grown from $12 billion in 1995 to $4.3 trillion in 2014 – that’s growth by a multitude of nearly 360 in less than 20 years. This 5th District Spotlight presents context to impact investing’s meteoric rise through facts, figures and analysis.
Nationally, 52.3 percent of renter households qualify as “rent burdened,” which means they pay 30 percent or more in gross rent as a share of their income. Most states within the Fifth Federal Reserve District, however, are below the national average. This article in the December 2015 issue of 5th District Footprint explores “rent burdened” rates across the Fifth District and what factors might lead to “rent burdened” status.
How have some small cities forged a path to economic resurgence while others still languish? Representatives from several Federal Reserve Banks and place-based funders are on tour to find out. In this first article in a Partners Update series, they study a revitalized Chattanooga.
The Boston Fed's quarterly Communities & Banking magazine supports the economic strength of lower-income communities by sharing relevant research and best practices. The winter 2016 issue cover article looks at how the Military Lending Act has affected the use of alternative financial services by military personnel.
The opportunities and challenges in a given community are complex, and to understand them requires a thorough assessment of data intertwined with the voices of local businesses, non-profits, and residents. Using Los Angeles as an example, this analysis from the SF Fed incorporates quantitative and qualitative data to holistically assess a county’s needs.
CRA OneSource is your source for Community Reinvestment Act tools, templates, guides, webinars and other resources to assist you in preparing for an exam and growing your community development program.
The Community Benefit Agreement (CBA) model was created in the late 1990s as a tool to ensure that neighborhood residents would benefit from economic development projects, which are often heavily subsidized by taxpayer dollars. This article, from the Chicago Fed’s Community Development and Policy Studies Division, explores community benefits agreements and ordinances in Detroit, providing some background, as well as on-the-ground experience in the city as it struggles to regain ground economically.
Some municipalities are using community development initiatives that capitalize on the strengths of the community and its residents to improve living conditions. But what motivates residents to engage with their local government in the first place? This November/December 2015 Partners Update article investigates findings from an Atlanta example.
The Kansas City Fed’s November 2015 Community Connections provides insights into borrower activity and looks at the future role of CDFIs. The issue also explores the relationship between community development and health, and examines creative approaches to workforce development and entrepreneurship.
The Community Development department at the Kansas City Fed hosted roundtable discussions around the 10th District to explore opportunities that entrepreneurship can provide in African-American communities.
Over the past few years, there has been significant growth in the number of multi-site, cross-sector initiatives to improve communities and the lives of their residents. This working paper from the San Francisco Fed details “what works” and “pitfalls” in its analysis of both past and current initiatives. The paper also provides insights into the design and implementation of place-based efforts for community development practitioners, financial institutions, healthcare payers and others involved in site-specific initiatives.
The process of and approach to community development might be as important as the technical solutions. A Partners Update article from July/August 2015 highlights two recent conferences that discussed this theme and addressed the need to create new approaches.
Economic Dynamism in Small Cities (Part 2): Migration, Commuting, New Firm Creation, and Population Density in Small Cities
The factors that contribute to economic dynamism in a small city can be elusive to define and measure. This May/June 2015 Partners Update article by the Atlanta Fed's Will Lambe looks at some elements of small city economic dynamism that may contribute to growth and development.
The St. Louis Fed’s annual Community Development Outlook Survey gathers input from a variety of stakeholders regarding the economic conditions of low- and moderate-income (LMI) households and communities in the seven states that make up the Fed’s Eighth District. Data from the survey is used to inform strategic planning, community and economic development, and public policy dialogue around issues and challenges for the District’s LMI areas.
Many small cities are growing at faster rates than has occurred in decades. This March/April 2015 Partners Update article by the Atlanta Fed's Will Lambe examines factors that contribute to economically vital small cities.
As the name says, these initiatives are designed to concentrate investments in a specific location, and some couple infrastructure and human capital investments. This Partners Update article by the Atlanta Fed's Will Lambe summarizes place-based initiatives, describes challenges for communities incorporating such a strategy, and discusses best practices.
In terms of health, the Southeast tends to trail behind other parts of the country, though efforts are under way to address these persistent challenges. In this Partners Update article, the Atlanta Fed's Karen Leone de Nie and Will Lambe look at resources generated in our region and by our Fed colleagues connecting health and community development.
This article provides a recap of the Great Lakes Ports and Regional Growth: Integrating Environmental Health and Economic Prosperity conference, co-sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, the state of Illinois, the Great Lakes Commission, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors. The conference explored new approaches to promoting economic development and maximizing local maritime assets, while protecting and enhancing the Great Lakes water resource.
Research demonstrates that where you live, and the socioeconomic conditions present in that place, determine individual-level health outcomes. Using community level data available through the City of Chicago Data Portal, as well as aggregated census tract level economic data compiled by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, this article explores community-level socioeconomic status conditions and corresponding health outcomes in Chicago’s 77 communities.
In the nine years since Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast, many affected communities have revamped their municipal plans. This discussion paper by Atlanta Fed research analyst Ann Carpenter examines these plans and compares their content with what is known about resilience from the perspective of fostering connected communities with a strong sense of place.
Twice each year, the Richmond Fed surveys experts representing the numerous, highly diverse communities in the Fifth Federal Reserve District to identify the most pressing current and emerging issues. This edition of Community Pulse presents findings from the Fall 2014 survey, reflecting a broad cross-section of community perspectives from across Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia.
Community development efforts to revitalize low- and moderate-income neighborhoods should begin with an appropriate understanding of the needs and opportunities present within these communities. This sentiment is especially true of banks looking to fulfill their Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) obligations. A truly responsive and innovative CRA program should begin with the “performance context,” or knowledge about the bank’s local markets, including the needs of the community as well as the opportunities that exist within the local network of resources and organizations. This paper from the San Francisco Fed attempts to demystify the performance context and establish its strategic value to the CRA process. It explores new opportunities for strengthening the performance context as a community development tool, from the perspective of both bankers and regulators.
With 90 percent of the world’s data generated in just the past two years, What Counts: Harnessing Data for America’s Communities challenges policymakers, funders, and practitioners across sectors to seize this new opportunity to revolutionize our approaches to improve lives in low-income communities. This book from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and the Urban Institute provides a roadmap for the strategic use of data to reduce poverty, improve health, expand access to quality education, increase employment, and build stronger and more resilient communities. Videos from the launch event on December 4, 2014, are available on the San Francisco Fed's Community Development YouTube channel.
Community and economic developers are always looking for new ways to help revitalize economically distressed communities. In a blog post, the Atlanta Fed’s Will Lambe looks at one rather novel program that could help: the Immigrant Investor Program, or EB 5.
The unemployment rate has dropped faster than expected since the end of the Great Recession, but it is still higher than normal. Who are the unemployed? How does today’s unemployment rate compare with historical highs and lows? Find out the answer to these questions and more in the latest issue of 5th District Spotlight, an engaging infographic of unemployment-related statistics in the Fifth Federal Reserve District.
The Kansas City Fed recently launched the first installment of its newest periodic series. The Tenth District LMI Labor Force Report provides a snapshot of low-and-moderate-income (LMI) labor market conditions in the Tenth Federal Reserve District. The analyses provide trends in unemployment rates, employment projections for workers with training and experience typical of the LMI, wage data, and the LMI Job Availability Index from the Kansas City Fed’s LMI Survey. The goal of the report is to provide community development and social service organizations, policymakers, and others a gauge of District LMI labor market conditions.
Published by the San Francisco Fed, this paper demonstrates that the greatest reduction in health care costs after placement in supportive housing is seen among chronically homeless adults and seniors who are frequent users of the health care system. The findings support the conclusion that permanent supportive housing can be a highly cost-effective placement option for homeless seniors exiting skilled nursing facilities, particularly as they approach the end of life, and points to the importance of this housing option for managed care organizations that are increasingly taking on the financial responsibility for the health care of this population.
Ever wonder about the Federal Reserve’s involvement in the field of community development? Wonder no more. Released in June 2014, Federal Reserve Community Development Perspectives: A summary of activities, insights, and future opportunities answers the "what," "why" and "how" of the Fed's role in community development. The report highlights the Fed’s recent efforts to address barriers to economic growth, and promote fair and informed access to financial markets. Featuring brief summaries of its community development work organized into four focus areas--people, place, the policy and practice of community development, and small business--the report includes background information that helps to provide context for this work, a sampling of key research, outreach programs and other initiatives, as well as some ideas on future challenges, needs and opportunities.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Spring 2014 issue include: Local Innovation, National Impact: Engaging Municipal Government in Financial Empowerment; Enrollment, Student Debt and LMI Communities; We’ve Met the Solution, and It Is Us; West Tennessee Day Trippin’: Rural Tourism Campaign Builds Regional Partnerships for Community and Economic Development; From the Ozarks to the Delta: A Historical Perspective of Regional Poverty in Arkansas; and more.
This special issue of Community Investments from the San Francisco Fed highlights excerpts from Investing in What Works for America’s Communities: Essays on People, Place & Purpose, with a particular focus on the topic of integration, a prominent theme that emerges from the book.
Historically, subsidized housing is concentrated in locations that are largely isolated from amenity-rich areas. While a variety of federal and local programs offer expanded neighborhood choice to lower-income households reliant on housing assistance, the bulk of subsidized affordable housing remains unevenly distributed across different types of neighborhoods. This research brief from the San Francisco Fed looks at how these patterns play out in the nine-county Bay Area of Northern California, focusing on the relative locations of subsidized housing and high quality schools.
Transit-oriented development (TOD) can provide households with more opportunities and choices. Ideal TOD communities are mixed-use neighborhoods with good-quality public transit that connect people of a variety of incomes to a wide range of economic, social, and educational opportunities. This report published by the San Francisco Fed explores how Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) can be utilized to provide financing for TOD projects.
Launched in 2011 by the San Francisco Fed, this project collects input from community stakeholders about the issues and trends facing low- and moderate-income communities in the 12th District. Reports synthesize key themes that emerge from the surveys.
California’s San Joaquin Valley is one of the nation’s most impoverished areas. Recent developments such as the foreclosure crisis have heightened the Valley’s needs, and there is also evidence that the Valley is beginning to garner more attention from financial institutions and federal regulators, creating an opportunity for community-based organizations (CBOs) and financial institutions to work together in a mutually beneficial way. This paper from the San Francisco Fed describes how stakeholders have successfully collaborated to increase reinvestment in other locales, with lessons learned for the San Joaquin Valley.
This issue of the San Francisco Fed’s Community Investments, explores a selection of Native initiatives across the country. It discusses how Native communities are partnering with federal agencies to build and support sustainable housing in Indian Country and establish modern water and sewer systems for remote Native communities in Alaska. The articles also examine a community-based health worker initiative in the Navajo Nation and a Native Hawaiian financial education program and community-based lending institution.
This paper published by the San Francisco Fed provides insights and tools to help community development practitioners, policymakers, funders, and other stakeholders better understand how to maximize the effectiveness and impact of different types of organizations at the local and regional level. Understanding your comparative advantages is critical to addressing complex community development initiatives from foreclosure prevention, to sustainable energy, to urban education, to job creation.
The impact investing marketplace is gaining traction—investment vehicles now span asset classes, infrastructural improvements are enhancing transparency and investor confidence, and social enterprise is maturing with a new generation of entrepreneurs. This paper published by the San Francisco Fed focuses on family investing through family offices and foundations and the factors that families and advisors consider when deciding whether or not to invest for impact.
The Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, launched the “Healthy Communities” initiative in 2010 to explore how the health and community development sectors can collaborate. A regional meeting took place in Las Vegas in January 2012, which led to the formation of the Las Vegas Healthy Communities Coalition (LVHCC), a collective impact initiative with a mission to “foster collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors and stakeholders, to generate healthy outcomes for all Southern Nevadans.” This report, authored by Laura Choi, details the formation and progress of LVHCC, which is still in the early stages of development.
This issue of the San Francisco Fed’s Community Investments explores the emerging approach of collaborative community development and lifts up early learnings from pioneers in the field. The articles discuss how to establish and grow collective action leadership organizations and working groups and build a strong but flexible initiative framework; consider how government can be an effective partner in collective action work; and convey the critical role of data and measurement in these initiatives.
In this issue of CDIR, the San Francisco Fed highlights a number of deliberate, innovative and interdisciplinary efforts addressing community development and environmental issues. These efforts are diverse, both in the issues they touch and the range of approaches and partnerships they employ. Issues addressed include air quality, climate change and water access on the environmental side, and education, health, and affordable housing on the community development side.
This issue of the San Francisco Fed's CDIR includes the proceedings of the “Advancing Social Impact Investments through Measurement” conference held at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in 2011. The issue also includes a series of thoughtful essays written by conference attendees in response to what they heard at the convening.
Community Development Investment Review: Building Scale in Community Impact Investing through Nonfinancial Performance Measurement
In the community development finance and impact investing worlds, there is both universal agreement on the need for better social outcome measurements and no consensus on how to do it. In this issue of CDIR, the San Francisco Fed offers ideas on how we might contribute to an ongoing process to establish a tool—or many tools—that help us measure the social benefit of impact and community investing.
In this issue of the CDIR, the San Francisco Fed explores the intersection of community development and health. Specifically, authors offer varying perspectives on how to “bend the health cost curve” using innovative community development strategies and how to positively affect social determinants of health to generate better health outcomes for low-income people.
The Spring 2014 issue highlights the State Small Business Credit Initiative that is helping fund small businesses across the Tenth District by leveraging private lending. The issue also spotlights an Albuquerque collaboration assisting underserved families and children, and the use of crowd funding as a tool for social entrepreneurship. In addition, the issue features a Q&A with Mark Pinsky, president and CEO of Opportunity Finance Network, on the challenges facing CDFIs in the wake of the Great Recession.
In disadvantaged neighborhoods, the condition of the housing stock can vary from block to block. On one block, homes appear well kept and in good condition, while on another, many homes show signs of physical distress. Since the blocks within the same neighborhood are often similar in terms of home values, what accounts for this pattern? And is there any contagion effect of home maintenance? Researchers at the Boston Fed examine this issue in several Boston neighborhoods in this report.
A physical and online exhibit, “What Does the Fed Do? 100 Years Serving as the Nation’s Central Bank” provides, among other unique features, an intriguing brochure on Fed history, the original painting of President Woodrow Wilson signing the Federal Reserve Act and a giant freestanding map of all the Federal Reserve districts made from shredded money. Check it out online, or in person at the Boston Fed.
The Kansas City Fed's Funder's Guide offers philanthropists, funding agencies and small business development organizations information and guidance on how to support economic growth through supporting organizations that develop small businesses.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials. Feature articles in the Winter 2013-14 issue include: Family Scholar House: Educational Program Breaks Cycle of Poverty for Single Parents in Louisville; Health Around the Corner; Insight Park: Visioning for the Future of Oxford and Ole Miss; Anchor Institutions in the Mississippi Delta; Charter School Anchors St. Louis Neighborhood Revitalization; and more.
This article provides a recap of a summit convened to explore the shared goals and visions of the community development and public health fields; and where new opportunities exist for collaboration. The summit was hosted by the Community Development and Policy Studies (CDPS) division of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, in partnership with the Illinois Public Health Institute, and the Adler School of Professional Psychology.
Social Ties, Space, and Resilience: Literature Review of Community Resilience to Disasters and Constituent Social and Built Environment Factors
Given the importance of resilience in promoting an effective recovery from severe natural disasters, the factors that contribute to such community resilience are of great interest to scholars and practitioners. The value of strong social networks in resilience is among the most oft-repeated lessons learned in recent scholarship. In this paper, Atlanta Fed research analyst Ann Carpenter examines the intersection of three connected threads in the literature to understand one particular aspect of resilience: how the built environment contributes to greater resilience by supporting and encouraging strong social networks.
The Dallas Fed provides this roadmap of best practices in community development and a healthy communities framework that highlights investments valuable to financial institutions and their target communities. Also included is a list of CRA reference guides and a useful template for a Bank's performance context.
Visit this resource to find information on Healthy Communities -- the intersection of community development and health -- including publications, presentations, podcasts, videos and web resources.
This Spring 2013 issue of the quarterly publication by the Boston Fed features research and best practices for CBOs, policymakers, financial institutions. and others; articles include Latino Dairy Workers in Vermont; Access to Affordable Food in New Hampshire; Beginning Farmers and Local Food Systems; Closing the Academic Divide through Debate; Giving a Decommissioned Military Base New Life; The Urban Forest; Great Recession and Confidence in Homeownership.
A compilation of essays published by the San Francisco Fed and the Low Income Investment Fund highlights entrepreneurial solutions for addressing poverty. Authors include leading experts from across the U.S. in community and economic development, academia, government policy, health, and philanthropy.
This issue of the Philadelphia Fed's Cascade spotlights the Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) industry and the products and programs implemented by CDFIs and their funding sources. Also featured is Mark Pinsky, Opportunity Finance Network president and CEO, who provides perspective on the CDFI recertification process.
This quarterly publication from the Boston Fed is geared for lenders and community development practitioners and focuses on the economic concerns of low- and moderate-income constituencies and those who serve them. The feature article in this issue is on the topic of universal preschool.