Neighborhood revitalization and stabilization - Data/Research
Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Pittsburgh—once major centers of manufacturing. See how these metropolitan areas have fared during roughly the last half-century as manufacturing and other key sectors of their economies have evolved.
The fourth in a series of reports that analyze Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data, Cleveland Fed researchers look at pre- and post-Great Recession mortgage lending in the county that is home to Lexington, Kentucky. Read their findings.
Bank’s Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) Opportunities for Promoting Job Creation, Workforce Development, and Place-Based Investment
This report summarizes innovative activities from banks’ Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) performance evaluations in the areas of job creation, education and workforce development, and transportation and affordable housing. By providing real-world examples of situations in which banks received CRA credit in these areas, we hope other banks will consider pursuing similar opportunities in the areas they serve for which they can receive CRA consideration, thus promoting economic growth and prosperity in these communities.
Since the Great Recession, homeownership rates have dropped and the wealth divide has widened for low-income and racial and ethnic minority households. Homeownership is a significant contributor to household balance sheets and generator of household wealth, particularly for these populations. A contract for deed is a seller-financed real estate contract consisting of installment payments. For households that desire the financial and physical security of owning a home, contracts for deed may provide an inexpensive option. However, risks may exist. This discussion paper explores informal homeownership issues by tracking contract for deed sales in the Southeast.
This article from the Cleveland Fed examines trends in Cuyahoga and Allegheny counties and reveals differences for not only the counties, but also for borrowers of different races and incomes.
An analysis of Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data by two Cleveland Fed researchers finds differences in mortgage lending outcomes by race and income in Allegheny County (home of Pittsbugh, PA).
Two Cleveland Fed researchers use Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data to examine trends in mortgage lending and find differing outcomes by race and income in Cuyahoga County (home of Cleveland, OH).
Place-based funders can play an important role for connecting economic growth to economic opportunity. Looking for Progress in America's Smaller Legacy Cities: A Report for Place-Based Funders describes a study tour undertaken by representatives from four Federal Reserve Banks and more than two dozen place-based funders, under the auspices of the Funders' Network-Federal Reserve Philanthropy Initiative.
How often does the character of a neighborhood change, and what are the most common types of neighborhood change? A Cleveland Fed researcher has attempted to shed light on those two questions by looking at four cities (Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, and Pittsburgh) over a 40-year period (1970-2010).
The nation continues to add jobs as the economic recovery continues, but employment growth is slowing, and even reversing, in some states, including those in the Fourth Federal Reserve District. How will this impact the District’s unemployment rate? In this January 2017 feature, a Cleveland Fed researcher examines five employment growth scenarios to find out.
Corporate Landlords, Institutional Investors, and Displacement: Eviction Rates in Single-Family Rentals
Institutional investors purchased thousands of homes across the country to rent them after the real estate and financial crisis. In this December 2016 Community and Economic Development Discussion Paper from the Atlanta Fed, authors examine how the rise of the large corporate landlord in the single-family rental market affected housing stability in Atlanta.
Philadelphia has experienced increased rental housing affordability challenges in recent years, especially in neighborhoods that have undergone gentrification. This report explores one aspect of gentrification’s impact on housing costs by examining its association with changes in Philadelphia’s stock of units that rent for less than $750 per month.
Presentations and videos, as well as the 2016 National Survey of Community Banks, are now available from the 2016 Community Banking in the 21st Century Research and Policy Conference, hosted by the Federal Reserve System and the Conference of State Bank Supervisors (CSBS). Held Sept. 28-29, 2016, at the St. Louis Fed, research explored the continuing relevance and importance of the community bank business model; the relationship between community bank size and performance; and community bank regulatory issues. Speakers included Fed Governor Jerome Powell, Chicago Fed President Charles Evans, St. Louis Fed President James Bullard and CSBS Chairman/Texas Department of Banking Commissioner Charles Cooper. H.E. “Gene” Rainbolt, chairman, BancFirst Corporation, provided the evening keynote.
A Cleveland Fed analyst examines the demographic challenges eastern Kentucky faces as it tries to attract and retain a more diverse mix of jobs.
One way a household might handle financial distress is to relocate to another area that offers greater income opportunities. A trio of Cleveland Fed researchers examines the impact of geographic mobility on consumer finances by focusing on the residents of “boom towns”—areas that saw a surge of growth in oil-drilling activity around 2010 and a bust thereafter. They find that residents who move after the bust experience stronger consumer financial health than residents who stay put.
In this first issue of its new Community Outlook Series, the Dallas Fed analyzes results from a poll of 52 affordable housing developers in over 24 Texas counties, and includes qualitative interviews that address housing challenges for providers and low- and moderate-income families across the state. Key findings include: A third of all Texans are housing cost-burdened and developers face issues from rising costs, insufficient funding, strict regulations and community opposition. Learn more.
Access to broadband has become an essential component of economic opportunity and financial well-being, yet there is a significant digital divide in many underserved communities.This Dallas Fed publication is a practical guide for financial institutions that shows how digital inclusion can improve the lives of low- and moderate-income individuals who have limited access to broadband infrastructure. It presents best practices and information on lending, services and investments that can help close the digital divide and contribute to an inclusive and vibrant entrepreneurial economy.
The San Francisco Fed, in partnership with Housing California, surveyed California’s affordable housing developers in October 2015 to learn how they are faring three years after the dissolution of redevelopment agencies (RDAs); how their development pipelines have been affected by the loss of RDA funds; and how new legislation, local regulation, or funding strategies have impacted affordable housing development over the past three years. This report is an analysis of current conditions and challenges expressed in the survey responses of 71 affordable housing development organizations across California.
This San Francisco Fed working paper utilizes data culled from presale reports from the first wave of rental-backed securities to analyze and describe the emerging trend of single-family home rental (SFR) securitization. Authors provide a basic overview of the market, showing the number and market value of single-family homes involved in these new financial products.
Given changing regulatory and market factors in mortgage finance, the time is ripe for innovation, and it behooves policymakers, business leaders, and communities to consider potential alternatives to traditional mortgages. In this 2016 ProfitWise New and Views article, the Chicago Fed’s Community Development and Policy Studies (CDPS) Division explores five innovative products in the residential mortgage marketplace – some already in place, others in progress.
Although seven years have passed since the end of the Great Recession, recovery in the housing sector has been inconsistent across the country. This discussion paper explores how these dynamics are playing out in the Southeastern United States and the neighborhood characteristics that accompany persistent concentrations of negative equity in the region.
The Atlanta Fed cohosted a symposium at the 2015 Rail~Volution conference to examine strategies that would promote equitable transit-oriented development without gentrifying a neighborhood and displacing residents. This January/February 2016 Partners Update article provides a peek inside the discussions from the October 2015 sessions.
How have some small cities forged a path to economic resurgence while others still languish? Representatives from several Federal Reserve Banks and place-based funders are on tour to find out. In this first article in a Partners Update series, they study a revitalized Chattanooga.
A website that accompanies the Dallas Fed study, "Las Colonias in the 21st Century: Progress Along the Texas-Mexico Border," which examines successes and challenges in infrastructure, housing, economic opportunity, education and health in Texas colonias. The site features a report, video, photos, success stories, data, legislation information and related resources.
Community Pulse presents the findings from a 2015 survey that identified the most pressing current and emerging issues in the Fifth Federal Reserve District. More than 300 community development experts from Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia shared their perspectives on the issues that their communities are facing.
How might communities deal with vacant, abandoned, and "problem" properties? This discussion paper examines successful blight remediation strategies in two southeastern cities--New Orleans, Louisiana, and Macon, Georgia.
Community prosecution is one method to mitigate crime in a community through a proactive and decentralized approach to problem solving. This first article in a series, from in the Nov/Dec edition of Partners Update, looks at how the city of Dallas is using community prosecution to reduce blight in target neighborhoods.
Lacking transit access, many lower-skilled workers in Northeast Ohio miss out on job opportunities, say Cleveland Fed researchers. This study looks at what Northeast Ohio business and civic leaders can do to increase job access.
This summary of the report Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia provides applied findings appropriate for a community development practitioner audience on gentrification and neighborhood change in Philadelphia.
New research from the Philadelphia Fed, Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia, explores the topic of gentrification and the effects of neighborhood change on vulnerable residents. This discussion paper provides an in-depth analysis on which neighborhoods in Philadelphia are gentrifying, who is moving into and out of gentrifying neighborhoods, and the experiences of vulnerable residents in those neighborhoods.
Published by the Philadelphia Fed, the Community Development Data Inventory describes timely and publicly available data sources to help inform the work of those involved in community development research or practice. This November 2015 release contains updated information and an expanded number in the inventory, from 16 resources to 24. The resources are described in easy-to-read, two-page summaries organized by topic, including Economy/Employment, Household Financial Stability, Housing/Homelessness, and Data/Mapping Platforms.
Missed the live webcast? Presentation slides and videos are now available from “Community Banking in the 21st Century,” the third annual community banking research and policy conference, hosted by the Federal Reserve System and the Conference of State Bank Supervisors (CSBS). Also available from the conference is a report that details conditions facing today's community bankers. Speakers and moderators of the event, held in St. Louis Sept. 30 - Oct. 1, 2015, included: Fed Chair Janet Yellen; Fed Governor Lael Brainard; St. Louis Fed President James Bullard; CSBS Chairman/Massachusetts Commissioner of Banks David Cotney; CSBS President and CEO John Ryan; and Houston Astros President of Business Operations Reid Ryan, founding investor and board member, R Bank and R Corp Financial, Round Rock, Texas.
Scholarly interest in the relationship between investment and displacement dates back to the 1970s, in the aftermath of displacement related to urban renewal. More recently, a new wave of scholarship examines gentrification, primarily in strong market cities, and its relationship to public investment, particularly in transit. The results of these studies are mixed, due in part to methodological shortcomings. A primary finding looking across the literature is that there is a need for a new methodology to analyze displacement risk.
Using detailed employment data on firm age and size, a Cleveland Fed researcher’s findings suggest that local lenders play an important and necessary role in job creation in the economy. Research economist Kristle Romero Cortes uses natural disasters and regulatory guidance to disentangle the effects of credit supply and demand in this 2014 working paper.
Housing market conditions continued to improve during the first quarter of 2015 across the seven states that comprise the Fed’s Eighth Federal Reserve District, according to the St. Louis Fed’s Housing Market Conditions report. The quarterly report provides a snapshot of conditions in the U.S. and in the Eighth District states and MSAs. This webpage features the latest report, and an archive of past reports.
The St. Louis Fed’s annual Community Development Outlook Survey gathers input from a variety of stakeholders regarding the economic conditions of low- and moderate-income (LMI) households and communities in the seven states that make up the Fed’s Eighth District. Data from the survey is used to inform strategic planning, community and economic development, and public policy dialogue around issues and challenges for the District’s LMI areas.
Affordable housing now ranks among the top concerns facing communities in the Fourth District. Jobs and vacant properties round out the top three. The Spring 2015 edition of Issues & Insights features analysis of results from the Cleveland Fed’s annual community issues survey of stakeholders, along with innovative approaches being tried in communities across the District, which comprises Ohio, western Pennsylvania, eastern Kentucky, and the panhandle of West Virginia.
Why might health, employment, and income continue to exhibit major disparities across racial groups in the United States? This Economic Commentary from researchers at the Cleveland Fed examines the cities that participated in the Moving to Opportunity social experiment to understand how different characteristics might be used to distinguish neighborhood environments, and how these characteristics relate to neighborhood poverty.
This Dallas Fed report describes and analyzes opportunities, successes and challenges of colonias located in six Texas border counties using both quantitative and qualitative data. The report focuses on infrastructure, housing, economic opportunity, education and health.
What can online word searches reveal? Turns out that data on the volume of internet searches for particular words and phrases can provide insights into housing demand, according to researchers at the Cleveland Fed. In a February 2015 Economic Trends they report that, over a 10-year period, the search volume for “real estate agent” moves closely with the Case-Shiller Home Price Index. While both have been trending upward, the researchers say growth in demand indicated by online search volumes has been lagging behind the index, which may imply that home prices are currently overvalued. Also, searches for the terms “first home” and “mortgage calculator” are currently much lower than they were before the financial crisis, suggesting a possible decline in first-time home buyers.
In the nine years since Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast, many affected communities have revamped their municipal plans. This discussion paper by Atlanta Fed research analyst Ann Carpenter examines these plans and compares their content with what is known about resilience from the perspective of fostering connected communities with a strong sense of place.
With 90 percent of the world’s data generated in just the past two years, What Counts: Harnessing Data for America’s Communities challenges policymakers, funders, and practitioners across sectors to seize this new opportunity to revolutionize our approaches to improve lives in low-income communities. This book from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and the Urban Institute provides a roadmap for the strategic use of data to reduce poverty, improve health, expand access to quality education, increase employment, and build stronger and more resilient communities. Videos from the launch event on December 4, 2014, are available on the San Francisco Fed's Community Development YouTube channel.
Analyzing Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data, researchers at the Boston Fed provide a brief overview of New England's mortgage lending activity in 2012 and evidence of disparities in loan origination outcomes for borrowers of various incomes, races, and ethnicities in this Community Development Issue Brief from November 2014.
In this Community Development Issue Brief, a researcher at the Boston Fed examines the factors that influence firm location choice in US cities--including availability of local labor, building lease costs, on-site parking for employees, and others--along with which of these might best explain the variance in employment trends across a set of small and mid-sized post-industrial Massachusetts cities. The results provide some indication of the extent to which these cities, and others like them, might influence their own economic futures.
This Research Brief from the San Francisco Fed examines trends in rental housing composition in Arizona, California and Nevada and takes a closer look at local areas that have seen the fastest growth in single-family rentals. These three states were hit particularly hard by the foreclosure crisis and have major markets that have been impacted by investor purchases.
Community Credit Profiles, created by the NY Fed, provide local information on credit access and use, to help inform community development policymakers and practitioners. Indicators are updated twice a year at the national, state and county levels to enable peer comparisons and program and activity benchmarks.
The Kansas City Fed recently launched the first installment of its newest periodic series. The Tenth District LMI Labor Force Report provides a snapshot of low-and-moderate-income (LMI) labor market conditions in the Tenth Federal Reserve District. The analyses provide trends in unemployment rates, employment projections for workers with training and experience typical of the LMI, wage data, and the LMI Job Availability Index from the Kansas City Fed’s LMI Survey. The goal of the report is to provide community development and social service organizations, policymakers, and others a gauge of District LMI labor market conditions.
This report released by the Philadelphia Fed reflects research conducted by students completing their master’s degrees in city and regional planning at the University of Pennsylvania, who investigated recent revitalization efforts in Bethlehem, Pa., Lancaster, Pa., and Wilmington, Del., with a focus on equity rather than on stated outcomes. This report summarizes their findings, includes proposals designed to produce equitable outcomes in each city, and provides a blueprint for cities interested in considering equity as an objective in future development efforts.
Buying a home is exhausting enough; does it help to add hours of financial counseling to the process? In a longitudinal study by the Philadelphia Fed, researchers evaluate the effectiveness of pre-purchase homeownership and financial management skills counseling. The study improves on previous efforts by employing an experimental design methodology, and it tracks study participants’ creditworthiness over time. Two key findings: pre-purchase homeownership counseling improves financial capability, and more hours of counseling produce greater outcomes for participants.
While appraisers have often been criticized for the inflated home values that were more prevalent during the housing boom, little research has been done to help understand how appraisal valuations respond to rapidly changing local market conditions and regulatory environments. In this discussion paper by the Philadelphia Fed’s Community Development Studies & Education department, researchers examine the pattern of appraisal bias in the Third Federal Reserve District during the housing crisis. Based on a unique transaction-level appraisal data set, this study evaluates how the lack of market activity, the concentration of foreclosures, and the increased use of appraisal management companies, as well as other factors, impact the incidence of low appraisals during the crisis.
The 12th District County Profiles, published by the San Francisco Fed, provide valuable information on the various labor-market, housing, and economic development issues impacting communities throughout the nine western states. More counties will be added in future rounds of profiles, so check back often to see if your community is featured!
Ever wonder about the Federal Reserve’s involvement in the field of community development? Wonder no more. Released in June 2014, Federal Reserve Community Development Perspectives: A summary of activities, insights, and future opportunities answers the "what," "why" and "how" of the Fed's role in community development. The report highlights the Fed’s recent efforts to address barriers to economic growth, and promote fair and informed access to financial markets. Featuring brief summaries of its community development work organized into four focus areas--people, place, the policy and practice of community development, and small business--the report includes background information that helps to provide context for this work, a sampling of key research, outreach programs and other initiatives, as well as some ideas on future challenges, needs and opportunities.
Has gentrification continued after the recession? During the housing boom, a number of large cities in the United States experienced redevelopment in their lower-income neighborhoods as higher-income residents moved in. Looser lending standards may have contributed to this gentrification trend. With tighter lending standards in place following the housing bust and financial crisis, researchers at the Cleveland Fed examined how the income rankings of neighborhoods in the centers of metropolitan areas have changed relative to those in the suburbs since 2000. In this Economic Trends report, they explain their methodology and findings.
This Dallas Fed research uses a spatial hedonic model to analyze 5,500 downpayment assistance loans made from 1997 to 2006 in the City of Dallas Mortgage Assistance Program (MAP). The study estimates the impact of subsidized mortgages on nearby home values and compares the performance of MAP loans to subprime and FHA loans.
The Chicago Fed provides findings from its recent Industrial Cities Initiative (ICI), an effort to gain a better understanding of the economic, demographic, and social trends shaping industrial cities in the Midwest. The report profiles ten Midwestern cities and explores the trends and experiences of each city individually, in comparison to peers and in comparison to their home states and the nation.
The Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC): Challenges Presented by the Onset of Year 15 in the St. Louis Region
This paper examines the challenges, along with current and expected future trends in affordable housing preservation and development utilizing LIHTCs.
Historically, subsidized housing is concentrated in locations that are largely isolated from amenity-rich areas. While a variety of federal and local programs offer expanded neighborhood choice to lower-income households reliant on housing assistance, the bulk of subsidized affordable housing remains unevenly distributed across different types of neighborhoods. This research brief from the San Francisco Fed looks at how these patterns play out in the nine-county Bay Area of Northern California, focusing on the relative locations of subsidized housing and high quality schools.
Launched in 2011 by the San Francisco Fed, this project collects input from community stakeholders about the issues and trends facing low- and moderate-income communities in the 12th District. Reports synthesize key themes that emerge from the surveys.
Using data from U.S. Census Bureau, this research brief from the San Francisco Fed analyzes the changing geography of poverty in the Bay Area. It focuses on the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area and explores the demographic changes that took place between 2000 and 2009.
Following the aftermath of the Great Recession, national indicators are starting to show signs of improvement in the housing market, but these indicators mask the realities of what’s happening on the ground in low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities. Complicating matters is the unprecedented role of investors in the housing recovery. This Research Brief from the San Francisco Fed provides an overview of related issues and examines housing market recovery and investor activity in the Federal Reserve’s 12th District.
This working paper from the San Francisco Fed provides an overview of patterns of subprime lending, as well as trends in foreclosures and REOs, in suburban communities compared to inner-cities. It explores the relationship between foreclosures in suburban areas and the increased suburbanization of poverty.
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York is deeply committed to the people of Puerto Rico and to its growth and prosperity. That commitment is reflected in the ongoing work of the Fed's Outreach and Education teams with partners on the Island and in the research by Fed economists, who monitor and analyze local economic conditions. This analysis—along with similar analysis from other regions across the nation—feeds into the decisions the Federal Reserve makes on monetary policy and regulation of the financial system.
This report from the Boton Fed describes credit conditions in Massachusetts in low- and moderate-income and middle- and high-income census tracts using a unique and nationally representative database of all individuals who have a credit history. The analysis highlights the differences in the percentage of individuals with credit accounts, median balances, monthly payments, delinquency rates, and credit scores in 2006 and 2012.
In disadvantaged neighborhoods, the condition of the housing stock can vary from block to block. On one block, homes appear well kept and in good condition, while on another, many homes show signs of physical distress. Since the blocks within the same neighborhood are often similar in terms of home values, what accounts for this pattern? And is there any contagion effect of home maintenance? Researchers at the Boston Fed examine this issue in several Boston neighborhoods in this report.
Why has average income grown in some poor neighborhoods over the past 30 years and not in others? In exploring this question, researchers at the Cleveland Fed found that low-income neighborhoods that experienced large improvements in income over the past three decades tended to be located in large, densely populated metro areas that themselves grew in income and population. Residential sorting—changes in population and demographics within neighborhoods—could help to explain this relationship.
Many signs in the housing market seem to be pointing the right way, except for the amount of time loans are spending in the foreclosure process. Foreclosure fast-tracks for vacant homes in foreclosure may help reverse that trend. This Commentary by researchers at the Cleveland Fed examines the savings Ohio and Pennsylvania might gain if they adopted such measures.
Many Rust-Belt cities have seen almost half their populations move from inside the city borders to the surrounding suburbs and elsewhere since the 1970s. As populations shifted, neighborhoods changed—in their average incomes, in their educational profiles, and in housing prices. But these shifts did not affect neighborhoods at the same rates. Recent research has uncovered some of the patterns characterizing the process.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond's Foreclosure Resource Center provides a comprehensive list of both national and local foreclosure prevention information, resources and data.
Although not directly affected by the boom and bust of the housing market, Appalachia, and more specifically rural Appalachia, might be fighting the Great Recession's aftershocks for quite some time. This report from the Cleveland Fed examines data to learn how Appalachians in counties from Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania are currently faring. Have they lost what little ground they gained from the late 1970s to the early part of this decade?
Visualize key economic and demographic data with the Kansas City Fed's new interactive web-based mapping tool. Overlay 31 different data indicators onto maps of your community. Users can also watch a video tutorial to learn how to identify geographies, select points, create a map and share a map.
How did the Neighborhood Stabilization Program play out in Boston? A research team at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston conducted a multi-method study of the impact of the Boston Neighborhood Stabilization Program effort. We found that the program properties were slower to be rehabilitated than a comparison group of non-program properties and that the program had very little impact on the physical or social conditions of the block. We conclude by offering some policy implications
How have northern cities fared as they recover from the loss of manufacturing, at the same time working to reduce pollution and become more attractive places to live? This report examines trends in manufacturing and pollution in the traditional industrial centers of the Rust Belt and the newer centers that sprang up in the South over the past three decades.
Social Ties, Space, and Resilience: Literature Review of Community Resilience to Disasters and Constituent Social and Built Environment Factors
Given the importance of resilience in promoting an effective recovery from severe natural disasters, the factors that contribute to such community resilience are of great interest to scholars and practitioners. The value of strong social networks in resilience is among the most oft-repeated lessons learned in recent scholarship. In this paper, Atlanta Fed research analyst Ann Carpenter examines the intersection of three connected threads in the literature to understand one particular aspect of resilience: how the built environment contributes to greater resilience by supporting and encouraging strong social networks.
Mortgage delinquencies continued to decline across all seven states that comprise the Fed's Eighth District during the fourth quarter of 2013, according to the St. Louis Fed’s latest Housing Market Conditions report. The quarterly report provides a snapshot of housing market conditions in the U.S. and the Eighth District, which covers the states of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri and Tennessee. The report also now includes data for the District’s four main Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs): Little Rock, Louisville, Memphis and St. Louis. View the most recent report, as well as archives of previous reports, at www.stlouisfed.org/community_development/HMC/.
An interactive tool, this Regional Mortgage Conditions map presents analysis of housing market conditions in the tri-state (NY, NJ, and CT) region from January 2007 to the present. Zip code level data are available for New York City, Long Island, and parts of northern New Jersey. Users can view the graphical analysis on a county-by-county basis and watch an animated timeline of how mortgage conditions changed during that period. The interactive map provides information about the percentage of loans in foreclosure, as well as those that are 60 days and 90 days or more delinquent.
This interactive visual tool allows users to explore where and to what extent home prices have recovered, as well as their effect on home equity and housing affordability in the states of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut.
The Minneapolis Fed provides a "zoomed-in," block-by-block picture of the housing market in the Minneapolis neighborhoods that were hit hardest by the recent foreclosure crisis.
Together with Living Cities, the Boston Fed launched a unique challenge to smaller industrial cities in the Northeast: Expand collaborative leadership that leads to a comprehensive city vision and cross-sectoral partnerships. Cities competed for grant monies to fund their ideas. Learn more about the Working Cities Challenge -- which cities' bold platforms are being funded, and how might their futures, and those of their residents, be improved.