Workforce Development and Human Capital - Publications
Benefits Cliffs and the Financial Incentives for Career Advancement: A Case Study of the Health Care Services Career Pathway
Benefits cliffs, which occur when earnings gains are offset by the loss of public benefits, have long been recognized to create financial disincentives for low-income individuals to earn more income. In this paper, the authors develop a new methodology to study benefits cliffs in the context of career advancement. Further, they illustrate two policy interventions: a childcare subsidy phaseout that is gradual rather than sudden, and an application of transitional public benefits with asset mapping of financial resources. The authors show how each of these interventions benefits a low-income parent seeking to advance up the economic ladder.
The report from the Kansas City Fed focuses on broadband access, economic impact and success stories for communities wishing to narrow the digital divide. The digital divide refers to the gap between those with and without access to affordable, reliable broadband and the skills and equipment to utilize it.
This Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta discussion paper examines a sample of recent randomized controlled trials of workforce development programs and reports to what extent this body of evidence informs policymakers about what works at scale. The findings show that most programs are implemented at a small scale, use nonrandom samples from the population of interest, and are concentrated in the most populous urban areas and U.S. states.
Economic trends indicate stark racial disparities in the labor market. Black and white workers experience such distinct labor market outcomes that the highest level of white unemployment has rarely exceeded the lowest level of black unemployment over the past four decades. Using findings from recent studies and data from the Federal Reserve Board's 2017 Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking (SHED), this special topic brief elaborates on the persistent black-white unemployment gap and highlights barriers to obtaining and maintaining employment. This brief is the third of a series based on research and roundtable discussions with community leaders throughout the country as of the Federal Reserve's Investing in America's Workforce (IAW) Initiative.
Amplificando la Voz de los Trabajadores en una Economía en Constante Evolución, or in English, Amplifying Workers’ Voices in an Evolving Economy, is the second installment of Invested’s series on Many Roads to Quality Work. Translated for the benefit of Spanish-speaking workers, Amplificando la Voz discusses the history and future of worker representation, highlights emerging forms of empowerment for disenfranchised workers, and looks at ways that meaningful engagement of employees also benefits employers and communities.
The second issue of the Boston Fed’s Invested magazine series on quality work explores innovative ways of amplifying workers’ voices in an evolving economy. The emerging forms of representation showcased in this issue could be especially helpful to marginalized workers such as those in the domestic services industry, many of whom are Spanish-speaking immigrants. To make this content more accessible to this population, we launched a “special edition” of Issue 2 in Spanish containing three key content sections and the full audio and transcript of our interview with a local domestic worker-leader.
The authors of this article examine how the 2014 reauthorization of the federal Child Care Development Block Grant is—or isn’t—helping families and child care providers. From Community Dividend, an online publication of the Minneapolis Fed.
Learn about investing in workforce development systems in this three-volume book Investing in America’s Workforce: Improving Outcomes for Workers and Employers. More than 100 authors share the latest research, best practices, and resources on workforce development focused on three distinct areas: Investing in Workers, Investing in Work, and Investing in Systems for Employment Opportunity. The publication is the result of a two-and-a-half-year collaboration between the Federal Reserve System, the Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University, the Ray Marshall Center at the University of Texas at Austin, and the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Download your free copy today at www.investinwork.org/book.
These case studies from the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas take a look at cross-sector partnerships that advance workforce and economic competitiveness in five regions: Rio Grande Valley, Texas; West Central Texas; Northeast Louisiana; Lane County, Oregon; and East Bay, California.
The Cleveland Fed traveled to Dayton, Ohio and learned that residents’ ability to get to work, often referred to as job access, was not just a challenge for residents of a public housing facility, but was a challenge repeated throughout West Dayton and in Cincinnati by employers, nonprofit organizations, and philanthropic leaders, too.
The Opioid Epidemic and Its Effects: A Perspective on What We Know from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland
Drug overdoses are now the leading cause of death for Americans under 50. In the Fourth Federal Reserve District states of Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, opioid overdose deaths are at least 1.5 times more frequent than the national average. This report details what the Cleveland Fed has learned about the opioid epidemic and specifically, its effect on workers’ participation in the labor force.
Using data from the Federal Reserve Banks' 2017 Small Business Credit Survey (SBCS), this paper investigates the various ways in which different types of firms with less than 500 employees experience and address hiring difficulties, including when they decide to increase compensation.
The results provide insight for policymakers trying to understand the linkage between compensation, labor market tightness, and productivity. Further, the variation in hiring difficulties across firm industry, education requirement, and geographic location informs economic and workforce development practitioners and policymakers working to develop targeted interventions.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects, and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics, and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Winter 2017-2018 issue include: New St. Louis Fed Tool Dives Deep into Community Investment; Cash on Hand Is Critical for Avoiding Hardship; Connecting a Memphis Community to the Built Environment through Equity; Investment Connection: The St. Louis Fed’s New Approach to CRA; CRA: An Examiner’s Perspective – Questions to Ask Workforce Development Partners; and more.
This issue of the Community Pulse presents the findings from our 2017 survey. Amount of/and or access to affordable housing, skill level of local labor force and general poverty were the top three current issues in the fifth district.
This issue of 5th District Footprint examines opioid prescription rates and drug overdose mortality rates in the Fifth District.
Opportunity occupations are jobs that pay more than the national median annual wage, as adjusted by local cost of living, and are generally accessible to workers without a college degree. As such, they provide crucial opportunities for middle-skill workers to enter the middle class. This article spotlights research findings that show that where workers live has a significant impact on the availability and accessibility of well-paying jobs that do not require a bachelor's degree.
Apprenticeships have the potential to improve economic opportunity for workers who lack a traditional college education. This article assesses the state of apprenticeships in the Southeast and nationally.
This article from the Chicago Fed's ProfitWise News and Views, Issue 4, 2017, explores employment change in ethnic minority neighborhoods in the Seventh District in comparison to job growth within their regions before and after the Great Recession.
Invested is the Boston Fed's new interview-based community development magazine that presents the voices of those who are affecting or affected by low- and moderate-income issues in New England. Each four-issue series explores a different topic. Series One explores "Many Roads to Quality Work," and in our first issue of Invested, we consider the complex and crucial challenge of creating work schedules that meet a variety of needs, and learn why strategic scheduling is such an important element of quality jobs and successful businesses.
Apprenticeship is a talent recruitment and development strategy that has been used traditionally in construction and the skilled trades and is being applied to high-growth sectors such as health care, information technology, manufacturing, and financial services.
This guide explains how apprenticeships work; discusses trends, successes, and challenges in U.S. apprenticeships; provides case studies of five long-term apprenticeship programs; profiles new and noteworthy programs; and includes contacts and resources.
This paper sets a framework for building transformative economies. Prepared by Paul C. Brophy, Robert Weissbourd, Andy Beideman for the Economic Growth and Mobility Project, the authors share policy levels to foster inclusive growth practices and highlight emerging approaches and innovative programs in regions across the country.
Opportunity Occupations: Exploring Employers’ Educational Preferences for Registered Nurses Using Online Job Posting Data
The Cleveland Fed took a deep dive into the Registered Nurses (RN) labor market, using online job posting data to gain a better understanding of how much education employers prefer when hiring. Why RNs? Since 2014, online job postings for RNs have far outpaced the postings for all other jobs.
Drug overdoses now account for more deaths in the United States than traffic deaths or suicides, and most of the increase in overdose deaths since 2010 can be attributed to opioids--a class of drugs that includes both prescription pain relievers and illegal narcotics. Two Cleveland Fed researchers examine trends in drug use and overdose deaths to document how the opioid epidemic has evolved over time and to determine whether it could be large enough to impact the labor force.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Spring 2017 issue include: Memphis and Beyond: Assessing the Market for CRA Investment; Does College Level the Playing Field?; Back to the Future: Financial Capability in Social Work Practice; CRA: An Examiner’s Perspective – Train for Results!; Entrepreneurship and Re-entry: Aspire Entrepreneurship Initiative; and more.
New approaches to developing such training programs are the topic of an Atlanta Fed ebook, Developing Career-Based Training. The ebook is a collaboration with national experts in workforce development. It follows the Atlanta Fed’s first ebook, Models for Labor Market Intermediaries, which shows how organizations in different contexts make the connections needed to address local workforce challenges. The ebook is also a companion to the 2015 publication, Transforming U.S. Workforce Development Policies for the 21st Century.
Read about C&B's transformation this fall into our new online magazine, Invested. Our spring 2017 feature article shares valuable lessons from the Boston Fed's Working Cities Challenge, an ongoing initiative to help smaller industrial cities in New England tackle social and economic problems. Also in this issue, we learn about the perils and abuses of land installment contracts, the value of community benefits agreements, and how entrepreneurship breeds opportunity in minority communities. Other articles highlight the importance of anchor institutions to local businesses, how "gamified" financial education seems to reinforce smart savings decisions, and we see evidence that pay-for-success approaches to preventing formerly incarcerated youth from reoffending can turn young lives around. Finally, we examine recent changes in the prospects for renters in New England.
Investing in America’s Workforce seeks to strengthen our nation’s economic potential through reframing and reimagining workforce development efforts, taking a broader view of them as investments, rather than as a limiting view centered on the delivery of social services. This initiative will connect businesses, government, nonprofit, and philanthropic partners to rethink policy and investments, attract new resources, and improve economic mobility for workers.
In 2016, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco held a series of roundtable discussions across the Western states to examine drivers of the recent rise in involuntary part-time employment and the impact it has on lower-income households. This paper summarizes existing research on the topic of underemployment, discusses themes that surfaced during the locally focused meetings, and proposes ways to address the underlying causes through solutions that build on the interrelated nature of housing, jobs, transportation, and child care.
The third issue of Community Scope 2016 will offer a broad overview of the challenges faced by today’s watermen that may be precipitating their declining numbers and will discuss alternative and supplemental employment options that may be available to them.
The second issue of Community Scope 2016 examines the patterns in geographic service provision by respondent CDFIs in urban, rural, low- and moderate-income (LMI), underserved and distressed markets and areas.
Nonprofits play a variety of roles in our daily lives; from providing higher education and medical care to supporting the arts. This issue of the Fifth District Spotlight looks at the nonprofit sector in the U.S. and within the Fifth District.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Winter 2016-2017 issue include: Indianola Promise Community: Improving Academic Outcomes in the Delta; Working Together to Address the Wealth Gap; Community and Economic Development: Around the Globe and Back to the Mississippi Delta Region; 12 Steps to Financial Success: Empowering At-Risk Adults; Memorial Community Development Corporation: Putting Faith to Work; and more.
This report from the Dallas Fed and the Center for Public Policy Priorities draws upon survey results from Texas' 28 workforce boards to demonstrate how integrated regional workforce development systems are strengthening the middle class by building talent pipelines that help advance lower-skilled workers and job seekers.
Workforce development contributes to a strong economy by equipping workers to succeed in the labor market and supplying employers with quality talent. This framework, from the Dallas and Kansas City Feds, is designed to give banks—and organizations interested in partnering with them—tools and information to engage in workforce development activities in ways that may help them fulfill their obligations under the Community Reinvestment Act.
This article from a 2016 Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago’s Profitwise News and Views publication provides an in depth look at the Cara Program. Since 1991, Cara has helped men and women affected by poverty to get and keep good jobs, and more importantly rebuild hope, self-esteem, and opportunity for themselves and their families in the process. Cara produces hundreds of jobs each year, at retention rates over 20 percentage points higher than national averages, and with over 80 percent of employed participants moving onto permanent housing in which their families can thrive.
The fall 2016 issue leads off with the necessity of teachers of color in public school systems and also reports on local educators' reactions to Common Core implementation. Other topics include the high prevalence of young adults receiving Social Security Disability benefits in northern New England, an overview of the region's addiction epidemic, a look at unemployment and the popularity of lotteries in Maine, and the relationship between homelessness and subsidized housing. More articles cover the Capital & Collaboration initiative's examination of community investment in Massachusetts Working Cities, how mobile payments help streamline commuting, a collaboration between Starbucks and a nonprofit group of CDFIs to create jobs, and data on childhood food insecurity in New England.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Summer 2016 issue include: All Low- and Moderate-Income Areas Are Not Created Equal; Moving First-Time Buyers Off the Fence: Solving the Millennial Homebuyer Puzzle with Proven Online Solutions and Partnerships; Innovative Partnership Brings Hope to Small Towns; Entrepreneurship and Economic Development Fueled by Students and Faculty; Impacting Homelessness in Missouri; and more.
The strengthening labor market provides an opportunity for both employers and policymakers to reconsider the status of subgroups that face distinct barriers to the job market. One important underemployed subgroup is the formerly incarcerated. This article, featured in Issue 2, 2016, of the Chicago Fed's ProfitWise News and Views, summarizes some of the challenges preventing many former prisoners from entering the labor force, and provides an overview of two recent symposiums organized by the Fed’s Community Development and Policy Studies (CDPS) unit to explore policy and programmatic interventions to address the issue.
Addressing Employment Needs through Sector Partnerships: Case Studies from Across the Federal Reserve's Fourth District
The Cleveland Fed’s Community Development Department chose five sector-based partnerships to include in a compilation of case studies. A few important similarities across the initiatives: active and substantive employer engagement, trust building across partners, and a strong intermediary can do a lot to promote relationship and trust building.
Spurred by provisions of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, workforce investment board members and representatives of the Cleveland Fed gathered at a forum in June 2016 to offer their input for a collaborative, overarching plan to address persistent workforce challenges across Northeast Ohio.
In this issue of 5th District Footprint, the Richmond Fed explores changes in the net migration rates of individuals within Fifth District counties from 2011 to 2015. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates net migration rates annually by expressing the net number of individuals that moved into a county from the U.S. (domestic migration rate) and abroad (international migration rate) as a percentage of the county’s total estimated population.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Spring 2016 issue include: Arkansas Communities Focus on Action, Reap Results; What Happens When the Least of These Gives the Most?; From Restaurant to Kitchen Incubator: Chef Space; Bioscience as a Foundation for Transforming St. Louis; The Information You Need for the Impact You Want: Two New Websites Link Data with Donor Action; and more.
In the summer 2016 issue of the Boston Fed's Communities & Banking magazine, the feature story reveals how shorter life expectancy of poorer people means that federal benefits for the elderly disproportionately help the well-off. Other articles look at expulsion of children from early education settings, using mobile technology to boost children’s savings accounts, innovative high school internships, Connecticut programs that help youth and older workers pursue higher education and better jobs, and more.
Boosting the Power of Youth Paychecks: Integrating Financial Capability into Youth Employment Programs
This working paper from the San Francisco Fed summarizes the results of the first-ever quasi-experimental design study of a youth financial capability initiative seamlessly integrated into a youth workforce development program.
The Low- and Moderate-income Conditions Survey:A Summary of Seventh Fed District Community Development Practitioner Responses
Increased employment hasn’t translated into greater financial well-being, according to findings from the LMI ((low- and moderate-income) survey published by the Chicago Fed’s Community Development and Policy Studies (CDPS) Division. While surprising on its face, Seventh District respondents offer three broad reasons for this seeming contradiction.
Federal funding for the traditional workforce development system has declined dramatically over the past few decades. In this April 2016 discussion paper, Stuart Andreason from the Atlanta Fed examines several promising alternative financing models for workforce development programs, such as social impact bonds and income-share agreements.
The spring 2016 issue of the Boston Fed's Communities & Banking publication spotlights shocking racial wealth gaps in the Boston metropolitan area. Also, see our map on changes in home mortgage originations in New England.
Research findings discussed during a 2015 conference at the Minneapolis Fed show there are levers available to keep the benefits of early learning programs going into later school years. From Community Dividend, a publication of the Minneapolis Fed.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Winter 2015-2016 issue include: Thrivers and Strugglers: A Growing Economic Divide; Neighborhood “House Economy” Teaches Youth Life Lessons; Grassroots Neighborhood Revitalization in Hyde Park; Collaboration: The Key to Champion Community Investments’ Success; How Housing and Health Care Nonprofits Can Increase Access to Medical Residential Services; Jacobsville Join In!; and more.
Some local communities are developing and deploying effective strategies and tactics to address common challenges in local workforce development. Critical to this effort is the fostering and facilitation of partnerships with traditional and nontraditional organizations. These partnerships are the topic of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta’s recently released electronic book--a collaboration with national experts in workforce development, and companion to the 2015 publication, Transforming U.S. Workforce Development Policies for the 21st Century.
The St. Louis Fed’s annual Community Development Outlook Survey gathers input from a variety of stakeholders regarding the economic conditions of low- and moderate-income (LMI) households and communities in the seven states that make up the Fed’s Eighth District. Data from the survey is used to inform strategic planning, community and economic development, and public policy dialogue around issues and challenges for the District’s LMI areas.
The Community Benefit Agreement (CBA) model was created in the late 1990s as a tool to ensure that neighborhood residents would benefit from economic development projects, which are often heavily subsidized by taxpayer dollars. This article, from the Chicago Fed’s Community Development and Policy Studies Division, explores community benefits agreements and ordinances in Detroit, providing some background, as well as on-the-ground experience in the city as it struggles to regain ground economically.
Lacking transit access, many lower-skilled workers in Northeast Ohio miss out on job opportunities, say Cleveland Fed researchers. This study looks at what Northeast Ohio business and civic leaders can do to increase job access.
What happens in metropolitan labor markets that are successful at attracting and retaining residents with a bachelor or higher degree? This discussion paper by the Atlanta Fed's Stuart Andreason investigates labor market outcomes in "leader metros."
The Kansas City Fed’s November 2015 Community Connections provides insights into borrower activity and looks at the future role of CDFIs. The issue also explores the relationship between community development and health, and examines creative approaches to workforce development and entrepreneurship.
Transforming U.S. Workforce Development Policies for the 21st Century is a dynamic new book that explores how innovative policies and practices can meet the changing needs of workers, businesses, and their communities. Produced in partnership by the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and Kansas City, and the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University, this edited volume presents contributions from more than 65 leading scholars and practitioners engaged in workforce development. They examine the state of the labor market, and potentially transformative workforce development and education strategies and policies to improve opportunities for job seekers, students, and workers, especially those encountering the greatest difficulties in the labor market.
This Forefront article offers highlights from the Cleveland Fed’s shale symposium, convened in February 2015 in Wheeling, WV, and featuring experts from around the country to examine how communities can make the most of extraction's boom while mitigating effects from the inevitable bust.
Demystifying the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) for Community and Economic Developers: A Primer
Effective July 1, 2015, provisions of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, or WIOA, went into effect. What changes has this legislation prompted, and how might they help improve outcomes for workers, employers, and communities alike? In this primer, a senior policy analyst from the Cleveland Fed highlights key reforms of the WIOA, along with implications for policymakers and practitioners.
This September 2015 newsletter from the Kansas City Fed covers a Q&A with Elizabeth Isele; an adult education program in Wichita that unites technical training and employment; a discussion on collaborative community development; new information that helps lenders keep current; and audience-specific tools to help improve knowledge among youth, adults and employers. The newsletter also contains a discussion on collaborative development and findings from LMI Survey results.
Over the past 35 years, America's fertility has reflected, to some extent, the business cycle, but that trend doesn't appear to be holding up in the current expansion. Two Cleveland Fed researchers take a closer look at this in an August 2015 Economic Trends.
Technological advances. Lower productivity. Fewer full-time workers. Depending on whom one asks, the reasons vary for why we’ve experienced more than a decade of low wage growth. One area of agreement, observes a Cleveland Fed writer in an article from its policy journal, Forefront: Stubbornly low wages impact society and the US economy.
This July 2015 newsletter from the Kansas City Fed announces an upcoming book on workforce development, examines a cluster-based model to supporting inner-city entrepreneurship in Omaha and provides updates on a borrowing guide for Native American communities. The newsletter also contains an interview with a Kansas City Fed economist on the role of millennials and boomers in the recovery of the multifamily construction market, as well as other news and events.
Organizations that help foster regional coordination among workforce development service providers recently convened to discuss successful strategies. This May/June 2015 Partners Update article summarizes their discussions, which include key challenges and methods for surmounting them.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Spring 2015 issue include: Community Counts: Activating All Families To Save for Higher Education; Preparing and Promoting Communities through Economic Analysis; Designing Opportunity: Ending Generational Poverty and Re-establishing Economic Stability in Rural America; Building Creative Communities; and more.
This bimonthly newsletter from the Kansas City Fed provides information on community and economic development trends across the Tenth Federal Reserve District.
Future Fortunes: Are City-Suburban Educational Attainment Trends in the Southeast United States Unique?
In this fourth Partners Update article in a series, the Atlanta Fed's Stuart Andreason and Mindy Kao investigate educational attainment trends in the Southeast, a region that has historically lagged behind the rest of the nation. This article, published in May/June 2015, looks closely at census and other data to try to uncover some positive trends that may exist despite the lag.
The St. Louis Fed’s annual Community Development Outlook Survey gathers input from a variety of stakeholders regarding the economic conditions of low- and moderate-income (LMI) households and communities in the seven states that make up the Fed’s Eighth District. Data from the survey is used to inform strategic planning, community and economic development, and public policy dialogue around issues and challenges for the District’s LMI areas.
This discussion paper by the Atlanta Fed's Stuart Andreason and Ann Carpenter examines the Atlanta metro area’s challenges in coordinating workforce development programs and services. The paper explores four cities that can serve as models of successful collaboration--Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, and Detroit.
In this third Partners Update article in a series, the Atlanta Fed's Stuart Andreason and Mindy Kao investigate educational attainment trends in legacy cities, older industrial areas that once relied on manufacturing and production but lost jobs and population.
In this second Partners Update article in a series, produced in March/April 2015, the Atlanta Fed's Stuart Andreason and Mindy Kao examine educational attainment trends across the country's 50 largest metropolitan areas and how the trends may have different implications for cities and suburbs.
The latest New England Community Outlook Survey from the Boston Fed takes a deeper dive into the effect of addiction on the economic strength of communities, particularly in Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire.
In this issue of Community Investments from the San Francisco Fed, we look into some of the reasons why we are seeing a degree of disconnection between what veterans need and the resources available to them. As we consider how the public can address these missing links, this issue’s articles provide evidence from local initiatives demonstrating effective ways for communities to recognize, support, and collaborate with veterans in the arenas of employment, housing, education, and financial stability. Many of the efforts presented here also highlight the ways in which veterans themselves are serving and supporting their fellow veterans and their broader communities.
From Classroom to Career: An Overview of Current Workforce Development Trends, Issues and Initiatives
This Fall 2014 edition of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago’s Profitwise News and Views highlights: workforce-focused programs and research around the Federal Reserve System; trends in educational attainment and (resulting) wage disparity; skills gaps among those seeking work; employer efforts to train workers; and examples of current workforce development initiatives in the District.
In listening sessions with the Atlanta Fed, workforce training providers noted the lack of soft skills in some workers. Those skills can be roughly divided into essential skills and workplace skills. In this Partners Update article, the Atlanta Fed's Stuart Andreason describes how both sets of skills are highly valued, but they imply different interventions. Understanding the different types of soft skill challenges—either essential or workplace skills—may help direct community development organizations toward the most effective interventions for certain populations.
Can changes in educational attainment of a population foretell the economic performance of a city relative to its suburbs? This Partners Update article by the Atlanta Fed's Stuart Andreason and Mindy Kao looks at data on the metro Atlanta area for answers.
Hands-on educational experiences are exposing low-income students in Minnesota to the concepts and opportunities found in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. From the January 2015 issue of Community Dividend, a publication of the Minneapolis Fed.
This Dallas Fed article describes the new UpSkill Houston initiative from the Greater Houston Partnership. UpSkill seeks to help close the skills gap and fill middle-skill jobs in the booming regional economy by connecting leaders from industry, education and social service organizations.
Which areas of the Fifth Federal Reserve District have the highest and lowest percentages of people 25 years and older with bachelor’s degrees or higher? How have these areas changed since 1990? Find out the answers to these questions and more in this November 2014 edition of 5th District Footprint, which looks at changes in educational attainment in the Fifth District between 1990 and 2012.
Twice each year, the Richmond Fed surveys experts representing the numerous, highly diverse communities in the Fifth Federal Reserve District to identify the most pressing current and emerging issues. This edition of Community Pulse presents findings from the Fall 2014 survey, reflecting a broad cross-section of community perspectives from across Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia.
The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act funds the public workforce development system, which provides job training and placement services across the United States. This brief Partners Update piece from the Atlanta Fed provides an overview of the Act, which goes into effect in July 2015.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Fall 2014 issue include: How the Shrinking of the Labor Force Might Impact Your Community; St. Louis Initiative Increases Youth Labor Force Participation; Broad Avenue’s New Face; Hands-On Commitment to Financial Education; and more.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Summer 2014 issue include: Treasury’s myRA To Debut in Late 2014; RISE to the Challenge: Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Louisville; Creating Opportunity Pathways for Asset Development; Redefining Historic Preservation; and more.
Analyzing Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data, researchers at the Boston Fed provide a brief overview of New England's mortgage lending activity in 2012 and evidence of disparities in loan origination outcomes for borrowers of various incomes, races, and ethnicities in this Community Development Issue Brief from November 2014.
Much of the wage growth in the United States over the past several decades has gone to the most productive (and highly educated) workers. This Partners Update article from the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta looks at the implications for community and economic developers.
Strong, well-functioning linkages between employers and a pipeline of local workers can be difficult to establish. But there are successful models. This Partners Update article from the Atlanta Fed features the Southwest Alabama Workforce Development Council, which exemplifies how collaborative regional partnerships can facilitate career pathways for local workers and also address industry's workforce needs.
The unemployment rate has dropped faster than expected since the end of the Great Recession, but it is still higher than normal. Who are the unemployed? How does today’s unemployment rate compare with historical highs and lows? Find out the answer to these questions and more in the latest issue of 5th District Spotlight, an engaging infographic of unemployment-related statistics in the Fifth Federal Reserve District.
The Kansas City Fed recently launched the first installment of its newest periodic series. The Tenth District LMI Labor Force Report provides a snapshot of low-and-moderate-income (LMI) labor market conditions in the Tenth Federal Reserve District. The analyses provide trends in unemployment rates, employment projections for workers with training and experience typical of the LMI, wage data, and the LMI Job Availability Index from the Kansas City Fed’s LMI Survey. The goal of the report is to provide community development and social service organizations, policymakers, and others a gauge of District LMI labor market conditions.
This edition of the Philadelphia Fed's Cascade provides highlights from the 2014 Reinventing Older Communities: Bridging Growth & Opportunity conference. The major themes of intergenerational mobility and equitable growth and subthemes of education, employment, and revitalization appear throughout the issue. Articles focus on measuring intergenerational mobility and economic growth in the Third Federal Reserve District; reversing the cycle of poverty through education and mentoring, as well as workforce development; exploring the future of community development corporations (CDC) and measuring CDC impact; and more.
A collaborative effort among schools, neighborhood groups, and service organizations is working to boost academic performance and family stability in North Minneapolis. From the July 2014 issue of Community Dividend, a publication of the Minneapolis Fed.
In this issue of 5th District Footprint, read about the Fifth District's four-year cohort high school graduation rates for the class of 2013.
Ever wonder about the Federal Reserve’s involvement in the field of community development? Wonder no more. Released in June 2014, Federal Reserve Community Development Perspectives: A summary of activities, insights, and future opportunities answers the "what," "why" and "how" of the Fed's role in community development. The report highlights the Fed’s recent efforts to address barriers to economic growth, and promote fair and informed access to financial markets. Featuring brief summaries of its community development work organized into four focus areas--people, place, the policy and practice of community development, and small business--the report includes background information that helps to provide context for this work, a sampling of key research, outreach programs and other initiatives, as well as some ideas on future challenges, needs and opportunities.
With the price of a college degree rising, students and families are taking on more debt. Is it paying off? Two Cleveland Fed researchers look at trends in student loan debt for young households and find that, by going to college, one is likely to end up in a household that earns a considerable wage income premium throughout its working life but which also has a sizeable amount of college debt early on. There is one education group for which this does not hold: those with some college but no degree. These households, which on average make up 32 percent of those 22 to 29 years of age and 25 percent of those 30 to 65 years of age, have some college debt but get little to no labor market benefit.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Spring 2014 issue include: Local Innovation, National Impact: Engaging Municipal Government in Financial Empowerment; Enrollment, Student Debt and LMI Communities; We’ve Met the Solution, and It Is Us; West Tennessee Day Trippin’: Rural Tourism Campaign Builds Regional Partnerships for Community and Economic Development; From the Ozarks to the Delta: A Historical Perspective of Regional Poverty in Arkansas; and more.
The state of the student loan market has received much attention in recent years, as the number of borrowers and their collective debt have risen dramatically. These trends have been particularly problematic in the wake of the 2007–09 recession because increased unemployment and suppressed income impair borrowers’ ability to make payments on their loans. This Cascade Focus, published by the Philadelphia Fed, outlines the recent history of student borrowing in the Third Federal Reserve District and explores lending patterns, by the neighborhood income of the borrower, to better understand the implications for low- and moderate-income communities.
Postsecondary educational expenses and student loan balances have been trending steadily upward, but persistent unemployment and weak economic conditions have created an alarming new trend of rising student loan defaults. This research brief from the San Francisco Fed examines broad trends in student borrowing in the Federal Reserve’s 12th District, with an emphasis on students from low- and moderate-income households.
Launched in 2011 by the San Francisco Fed, this project collects input from community stakeholders about the issues and trends facing low- and moderate-income communities in the 12th District. Reports synthesize key themes that emerge from the surveys.
This Dallas Fed article highlights an innovative housing program addressing the needs of homeless veterans in the northern Louisiana portion of the the 11th District. Volunteers of America of North Louisiana provides transitional housing and supportive services including comprehensive health care, vocational rehabilitation and financial education.
This Dallas Fed article highlights United Way THRIVE, an innovative community financial stability collaborative of 21 service providers, launched and led by United Way of Greater Houston. In 2013, the effort guided 52,000 Houston-area families in reaching three financial stability objectives: increasing income, building savings,and acquiring assets.
This paper published by the San Francisco Fed provides insights and tools to help community development practitioners, policymakers, funders, and other stakeholders better understand how to maximize the effectiveness and impact of different types of organizations at the local and regional level. Understanding your comparative advantages is critical to addressing complex community development initiatives from foreclosure prevention, to sustainable energy, to urban education, to job creation.
In this issue of the CDIR, the San Francisco Fed explores the intersection of community development and health. Specifically, authors offer varying perspectives on how to “bend the health cost curve” using innovative community development strategies and how to positively affect social determinants of health to generate better health outcomes for low-income people.
This issue of Community Pulse presents the results of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond's spring 2014 survey of most pressing current and emerging issues of its numerous and highly diverse communities. Access to affordable housing, availability of jobs locally and improving the quality of K-12 education were the top three current issues in the Fifth District.
The Boston Fed has created a powerful, time-saving, easy-to-use tool for people interested in the New England region. The tool uses census data to compare the demographic characteristics of lower-income and higher-income areas within a city. It also provides aggregate information for New England states and for the region as a whole
In disadvantaged neighborhoods, the condition of the housing stock can vary from block to block. On one block, homes appear well kept and in good condition, while on another, many homes show signs of physical distress. Since the blocks within the same neighborhood are often similar in terms of home values, what accounts for this pattern? And is there any contagion effect of home maintenance? Researchers at the Boston Fed examine this issue in several Boston neighborhoods in this report.
One problem low-income communities may face in trying to revitalize is dealing with a high share of residents who are returning home after serving prison terms. Returning citizens often concentrate in low-income areas, and they typically lack the education and skills needed to find jobs. In this Commentary from the Cleveland Fed, a researcher examine these and other barriers to employment, estimates the degree of unemployment, and describes some solutions emerging for this population.
The Kansas City Fed summarizes findings from a series of roundtable discussions held on the issues of workforce development and the chronically unemployed.
This paper from the Kansas City Fed provides a detailed overview of the U.S. student loan market, presents new statistics that highlight student loan debt burdens and delinquency rates, and discusses current concerns among many Americans about student loans, including their fiscal impact.
The Kansas City Fed provides fact sheets for employees to understand and make the most of their paychecks. The additional resources for employers can be used to reinforce the information provided in the fact sheets.
Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics and government officials. Feature articles in the Winter 2013-14 issue include: Family Scholar House: Educational Program Breaks Cycle of Poverty for Single Parents in Louisville; Health Around the Corner; Insight Park: Visioning for the Future of Oxford and Ole Miss; Anchor Institutions in the Mississippi Delta; Charter School Anchors St. Louis Neighborhood Revitalization; and more.
This article explores the roles of community colleges across the Seventh Federal Reserve District in addressing worker skill gaps. U.S. Census data indicate the percentage of the population with at least a high school degree has been increasing since 1970, as has the percentage of the population with post high school education (if not a four-year degree). During that time, the percentage of people with some college or a college diploma increased 160 percent. While these trends are encouraging, demands in the labor marketplace for technically skilled workers reinforce the value of investment in skills training. Published by the Chicago Fed’s Community Development and Policy Studies Department (CDPS)
This article provides a recap of the Asset Development Summit for Persons with Disabilities Summit, which brought together Chicago-area disability and asset building partners to discuss how to work together to expand economic empowerment opportunities for persons with disabilities. The February 2013 summit was hosted by the Chicago Fed’s Community Development and Policy Studies (CDPS) Division.
Social Ties, Space, and Resilience: Literature Review of Community Resilience to Disasters and Constituent Social and Built Environment Factors
Given the importance of resilience in promoting an effective recovery from severe natural disasters, the factors that contribute to such community resilience are of great interest to scholars and practitioners. The value of strong social networks in resilience is among the most oft-repeated lessons learned in recent scholarship. In this paper, Atlanta Fed research analyst Ann Carpenter examines the intersection of three connected threads in the literature to understand one particular aspect of resilience: how the built environment contributes to greater resilience by supporting and encouraging strong social networks.
It's hard to argue against the value of education these days, but with so many adult workers lacking a college degree, we set out to learn more about the prospects today for young workers with no plans to get a four-year degree. This report describes the patterns of education, employment, and wages in eight metro areas of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky and how they stack up against the 100 largest metros in the U.S. Young workers in Pittsburgh, it turns out, are in a relatively strong position. We point to relevant labor market research as we examine the prospects of workers in the region without a college degree.
These data briefs from the Community Development team at the Cleveland Fed examine the educational attainment levels, employment status, and occupations of workers in four MSAs in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky, with a primary focus on those aged 18 to 35 with no post-secondary degree.
Helping people who have criminal records find sustained, gainful employment could help produce savings and benefits for both the ex-offenders and society at large. From the October 2013 issue of Community Dividend, a publication of the Minneapolis Fed.
This Infographic from the Richmond Fed presents key facts about homelessness in the U.S. and within the Fifth Federal Reserve District.
The August 2013 issue of 5th District Footprint examines the distribution of manufacturing employment in the Fifth District. Counties with high concentration of manufacturing employment tend to be located close to transportation networks, have low population density and are near other counties that also have a high share of manufacturing jobs.
This issue of Community Scope (2013, Volume 3, Issue 1) explores the re-employment experience of displaced Pillowtex textile workers in North Carolina following the largest permanent mass layoff in the state’s history. The study focuses on the assistance strategies and reemployment outcomes in the counties with the largest concentration of displaced workers and highlights the challenges and opportunities involved in the process.
Ohio’s workforce development system is complex and fragmented. Despite still-high unemployment, for example, employers complain of not being able to find workers to fill open positions. In 2013 the Cleveland Fed talked with individuals across the state about the biggest challenges facing employers, educators, and job seekers alike. We also learned of some integrative approaches that appear to be working. Read about our findings in this special report.
The Spring 2013 issue highlights research on the impact of the Great Recession on low- and moderate-income communities. Also included are FAQs about the Fed's role in community and economic development, an interview with NeighborWorks America's Midwest director, CRA 101 tips for nonprofit organizations to work more effectively with financial institutions, and an overview of workforce development initiatives.
To learn more about the decreased labor force participation rate and skills mismatch of young people, particularly in post-industrial cities and their surrounding regions, the Philadelphia and Cleveland Feds held five listening sessions across Pennsylvania in 2013. In this report we distill and document what we heard, including local strategies to better align education and employment initiatives in order to improve job opportunities for this demographic, along with ways to increase engagement and collaboration among a broad group of stakeholders.
This issue of Community Pulse presents the results of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond's fall 2013 survey of most pressing current and emerging issues of its numerous and highly diverse communities. Availability of jobs locally, affordable housing and budgetary issues at the state or local government level were the top three current issues in the Fifth District.