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Workforce Development and Human Capital - Publications


Trouble Finding Workers? The Answer May Be Transit

The Cleveland Fed traveled to Dayton, Ohio and learned that residents’ ability to get to work, often referred to as job access, was not just a challenge for residents of a public housing facility, but was a challenge repeated throughout West Dayton and in Cincinnati by employers, nonprofit organizations, and philanthropic leaders, too. 

The Opioid Epidemic and Its Effects: A Perspective on What We Know from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Drug overdoses are now the leading cause of death for Americans under 50. In the Fourth Federal Reserve District states of Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, opioid overdose deaths are at least 1.5 times more frequent than the national average. This report details what the Cleveland Fed has learned about the opioid epidemic and specifically, its effect on workers’ participation in the labor force.

How do Firms Respond to Hiring Difficulties?

Using data from the Federal Reserve Banks' 2017 Small Business Credit Survey (SBCS), this paper investigates the various ways in which different types of firms with less than 500 employees experience and address hiring difficulties, including when they decide to increase compensation.

The results provide insight for policymakers trying to understand the linkage between compensation, labor market tightness, and productivity. Further, the variation in hiring difficulties across firm industry, education requirement, and geographic location informs economic and workforce development practitioners and policymakers working to develop targeted interventions.

Bridges — Winter 2017-2018

Bridges is a quarterly review of regional community and economic development issues, projects, and regulatory changes for practitioners from community-based organizations, as well as for CRA officers, academics, and government officials that work in the Eighth Federal Reserve District. Feature articles in the Winter 2017-2018 issue include: New St. Louis Fed Tool Dives Deep into Community Investment; Cash on Hand Is Critical for Avoiding Hardship; Connecting a Memphis Community to the Built Environment through Equity; Investment Connection: The St. Louis Fed’s New Approach to CRA; CRA: An Examiner’s Perspective – Questions to Ask Workforce Development Partners; and more.

Community Pulse (December 2017)

This issue of the Community Pulse presents the findings from our 2017 survey. Amount of/and or access to affordable housing, skill level of local labor force and general poverty were the top three current issues in the fifth district.

5th District Footprint: The Opioid Epidemic iin the Fifth District

This issue of 5th District Footprint examines opioid prescription rates and drug overdose mortality rates in the Fifth District.

Uneven Opportunity: Variation in Employers' Educational Preferences for Middle-Skills Jobs

Opportunity occupations are jobs that pay more than the national median annual wage, as adjusted by local cost of living, and are generally accessible to workers without a college degree. As such, they provide crucial opportunities for middle-skill workers to enter the middle class. This article spotlights research findings that show that where workers live has a significant impact on the availability and accessibility of well-paying jobs that do not require a bachelor's degree. 

The Promise and Reality of Apprenticeship Programs in the United States

Apprenticeships have the potential to improve economic opportunity for workers who lack a traditional college education. This article assesses the state of apprenticeships in the Southeast and nationally.

Competitiveness of Ethnic Minority Neighborhoods in Metropolitan Areas in the Seventh District

This article from the Chicago Fed's ProfitWise News and Views, Issue 4, 2017, explores employment change in ethnic minority neighborhoods in the Seventh District in comparison to job growth within their regions before and after the Great Recession.

Invested: Community Voices Informing Policy and Practice in New England

Invested is the Boston Fed's new interview-based community development magazine that presents the voices of those who are affecting or affected by low- and moderate-income issues in New England. Each four-issue series explores a different topic. Series One explores "Many Roads to Quality Work," and in our first issue of Invested, we consider the complex and crucial challenge of creating work schedules that meet a variety of needs, and learn why strategic scheduling is such an important element of quality jobs and successful businesses.

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